Two wires each consisting of a conductor enclosed in the insulation are combined/grouped together to form a paired cable. Paired cables are manufactured in a variety of different sizes, lengths, gauge sizes of the conductors, insulating materials, and jacketing materials. Each cable is different depending upon the technical requirements of many different types of the systems. Pairing the cable allow a balanced channel for the transmission of signals. Less electromagnetic interferences, lower crosstalk through common mode rejection process. Pairing cables allow the flow of high-speed transmission signal with less noise and attenuation in the signal integrity.
Single Conductor and Stranded Conductor Cables
Paired cable having a single conductor throughout its length will make it harder to bend. Due to the presence of a single conductor throughout the paired cable, the cable could not transfer the signal at its best capacity due to the ‘’skin-effect’’. Skin Effect takes place on the outer layer of the conductor, abiding the conductor to use its full cross-sectional area for transmission and processing the signal transmission merely on the outer layer of the cable. To encounter this problem, instead of using a single conductor paired cable, a stranded conductor is used in the paired cables. Now, a single conductor is divided into smaller strands. These strands will definitely work like a whole conductor but it makes the paired cable flexible, it also eliminates the possibility of skin-effect. Hence, the use of twisted-paired cables provides such enhancements in the design equipment. Some important types of Twisted Paired cables are as follows: –
Twisted Pair Cable
Twisted Pair Cable is mostly used in data transmission because it provides higher data transmission speed. Two types of twisted pair cables are used
1) Shielded Twisted Pair Cable (STP)
2) Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable (UTP)
The difference is only that in the shielded twisted pair cable the wires are properly covered using aluminum foil individually and combined. But in Unshielded twisted pair cable all the wires remain uncovered.