Optical fiber sensors comprise a light source, optical fiber, external transducer, and photodetector. They sense by detecting the modulation of one or more of the properties of light that is guided inside the fiber—intensity, wavelength, or polarization, for instance. The modulation is produced in a direct and repeatable fashion by an external perturbation caused by the physical parameter to be measured. The measurand of interest is inferred from changes detected in the light property.
Fiber-optic sensors can be intrinsic or extrinsic. In an intrinsic sensor, the light never leaves the fiber and the parameter of interest affects a property of the light propagating through the fiber by acting directly on the fiber itself. In an extrinsic sensor, the perturbation acts on a transducer and the optical fiber simply transmits light to and from the sensing location.
Fiber Optics in Medical Industry have successfully created its place. It has transformed the whole electronics behind the medical industry. Because it is short, tensile and easily adjusted in the machine it becomes better option than the copper wire. It also has lesser attenuation factor as compared to other wires.
Fiber optic solutions applicable for several medical sectors, such as:
Illumination: Fiber optic illumination is the conveyance or transmission of light from a source (output) to one or several fibers, allowing light to escape through the end of the fiber and illumination apparatus. Widely used in medical, dental, automotive, and research applications.
Laser Signal Delivery: There are many different types of lasers. The laser medium can be a solid, gas, liquid or semiconductor. Lasers are commonly designated by the type of lasing material employed:
1) Solid-state lasers have lasing material distributed in a solid matrix.
2) Gas lasers (helium and helium-neon, HeNe, are the most common gas lasers).
3) Excimer lasers (the name is derived from the terms excited and dimers) use reactive gasses, such as chlorine and fluorine, mixed with inert gasses such as argon, krypton or xenon. When electrically stimulated, a pseudomolecule (dimer) is produced. When laser, the dimer produces light in the ultraviolet range.
Sensor And Equipment: Both the sensor and the equipment made this high-speed transmission successful for the laser communication.