fiber-cableTechnology refers to the “knowledge of techniques and processes etc”, and cables are the accessory required to transmit electrical energy or telecommunication signals, when we combine both we get an innovation in cables that are able to transmit signals with greater speed and bandwidth for long distances. This innovation can be entitled as “Fiber cable technology”.

An optical fiber cable is comprises of astonishingly thin strands of glass and plastics known as optical fibers. Each strand can be as thick as tenth of a human hair and has the potential to carry 25,000 telephone calls, whereas whole cable might comprises of several hundred strands on account of this, each cable can easily carry several million calls. Fiber cables works on the phenomenon of reflection of light inside the pipe and it is the type of continuous reflection. It all happens because of the structure of cable I.e. internal core where the light travelled and an outer covering called “cladding” that keeps the light within the core.

If we talk about the types of fiber cables, there are two prominent types;

  • Single mode fiber
  • Multi-mode fiber

Single Mode Fiber:

It is the simplest type of fiber cable called “single-mode”. It comprise of single strand of fiber (in some application two strands) the size of its core is very thin about 5-10 microns in diameter. It promotes the movement of signals straight down the middle without bouncing off the edges. It can send information over 100km. It is mostly used in application where data is sent at multi frequency, its most common applications are;

  • Cable signals
  • Television signals
  • Internet signals
  • Telephone signals

Single mode fiber cables holds following merits;

  • Higher transmission rates up to 50 times more distance than multimode
  • Its single core makes it possible to eliminate distortion
  • It provides least signal attenuation and so highest transmission rates

But along with all these merits, it also has some demerits either;

  • Smaller core diameter makes the coupling of light inside the core more difficult
  • It has a lower tolerance

Multi-mode fiber:

It is the second type of cable and it differs in size of optical fiber, i.e. one optical fiber in multi-mode is 10 times bigger than one in single mode cable. In multi-mode fiber cables light can travel by variety of paths not just one. It is commonly utilize for the transmission of data for very short distances only. Its common application is;

  • Linking computes networks together
  • Data applications in LANs
  • Audio/ video applications in LANs
  • RF broadband signals

Multi-mode fiber cables provides following merits;

  • High bandwidth speed from 10-100MBS
  • High speed up to 275m-2km

It sets following demerits either;

  • Because of multi path, signals distortion arises
  • Unclear and incomplete data transmission

In-short, now-a-days fiber optic cables are used in various applications like; computer networks, broadcasting, medicine and military etc.


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